Essay about Oil Spill Response - Words | Bartleby

 

essay on oil spills

Oil Spills Essay Examples. 22 total results. An Analysis of the Oil Flowing Out of the BP Which Caused Havoc on the Environment of the Gulf. words. 2 pages. An Argument That Water Pollution Should Be Stopped. words. 2 pages. An Introduction to the Issue of Oil Spills. words. 1 page. Oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land. Essay on oil spills - Hire the specialists to do your essays for you. Get started with term paper writing and craft finest term paper ever Essays & researches written by professional writers.


Oil Spill Research Essay Example


Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. General conclusions and recommendations are followed by those for physics and chemistry, biological effects, ecological effects, birds and mam- mals, essay on oil spills, and techniques, logistics, and contingency planning.

Support- ing text is cross-referenced in parentheses following each conclusion. In a few carefully planned and monitored field tests, high effectiveness has been documented p, essay on oil spills. At other field tests pp. Tn- conclusive visual results have occurred when different observers look- ing at the same dispersant treatment have provided widely differing essay on oil spills of effectiveness p.

Implementation of this recommendation must consider spill size, logistical and contingency planning, equipment and dispersant performance and! Prior approval to fileld-test a d;tspersant immediately after a spill, to establish dispersability when it essay on oil spills in doubt, should be included in contingency plans, essay on oil spills.

Biological concerns focus on the possible expansion of the surface area of slicks p. Laboratory bioassays at measured concentrations show that the toxic effects per unit of dispersed of] are usually the same for chemi- cally dispersed of] as those for physically dispersed oil pp. In shallow water with poor circulation, and in protected bays and inlets, the acute biological effects on some organisms and habitats from high concentrations of dispersed oil may be greater than the effects of untreated oils pp.

The spreading and distribution of oil on the water surface de- pends on complex surface circulation patterns as well as properties of the oil, wind and sea conditions, and distribution and thickness of the origin spin pp. These circulation-related phenomena have been observed qualitatively, essay on oil spills, but predictive theories are not yet dependable pp.

The size distribution of oil droplets dispersed in the water column affects the stability of a dispersion. The smaller the droplets, the more stable the dispersion p. Partial resurfacing of dispersed oil, after agitation ceases, essay on oil spills, occurs under laboratory conditions.

There is disagreement about its occur- rence in practical situations because little quantitative held evidence exists. Resurfacing of dispersed oil may be less likely than that of. Essay on oil spills of what is wed known about the physical properties and molecular action of surfactants to the problem of dispersing oil requires further experimentation and technical experience to guide development essay on oil spills formulating and applying dispersants.

These analyses will advance understanding about the concentration of oils in the water column under various dispersion conditions; and scientific research concerning the mechanisms by which droplets of dispersant contact an oilfiIm, mix and penetrate into it, how their surfactants interact with the oft and migrate to the oil-water interface, essay on oil spills, and the microscopic processes by which emulsions actually form, essay on oil spills.

This conclusion is based primarily on labo- ratory tests. Although the most effective dispersants tend to be more toxic, lower concentrations of these are required p. Water temperature has a profound influence on the toxicity of dispersants; there are significantly higher sensitivities of organisms in.

Screening tests for a dispersant should account for essay on oil spills expected seawater temperature range. A wide range of sublethal responses, usually at high exposures, has been observed pp. The sublethal effects of disper- sants at realistic concentrations are only partially understood. It is unlikely, based on concentrations of dispersants that would result from spraying in marine waters at common rates, that dispersants would contribute significantly to lethal or sublethal toxicities pp.

New products should be screened; for short-term toxicity us- ing standard methods that would consider the physicochemical characteristics of the dispersant solutions and lethal and sub- lethal responses of test organisms. In addition, such standards, if they were international, would permit reliable comparisons of data among nations.

Knowledge of the chemical composition of formulations is nec- essary for making responsible decisions about the use of of] spin dispersants pp. The chemical compositions are indicative of toxicity and surfactant properties. This information is particularly important to studies concerning toxicological and ecological effects of dis- persants and dlispersed oils. Other members felt that the detailed structure of the major and minor components is essential to achieve a biochemical understanding of toxic effects.

A proper comparison of the effects of chemically treated and untreated of! Based on laboratory studies, acute lethal toxicity of chemically dispersed oils resides not in the dispersant but primarily in the oil droplets for some species and the low molecular weight and dis- solved, aromatic, and aliphatic fractions of the of!

Acute toxicity of chemically dispersed oils is generally similar to that of the portion of oil in the water column alone p. Different species and life stages show sensitivity to chemically dispersed oils at exposures varying by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude pp.

One approach is to express exposure as an integral of concentration over time based on a "tox- icity index" concept that concentration and time of exposure are of equal importance in short hydrocarbon exposures. Several studies have shown that chemically dispersed oil does not adhere as much as untreated of! Greater adverse effects have sometimes been observed from a few untreated of] droplets than from many chemically dispersed oil droplets essay on oil spills. Particular emphasis should be placed on organisms that reside at or near the sea surface.

Biodegradation The biodegradation of dispersant components has been demon- strated in the laboratory and in mesocosm experiments pp. The best strategy for protecting sensitive inshore habitats i.

Dispersion of of] before it reaches these habitats may keep them from becoming oiled, or may reduce the persistence of oil that contacts them. Thus offshore chemical dispersal may be the best technique for reducing overall, particularly chronic, impact of the oil in those habitats. Benthic organisms, such as mollusks, may also be exposed to higher concentrations of dispersed oils, resulting in short-term bioaccumulation.

However, essay on oil spills harmful effects may be reduced by chemically dispersing of] rather than not treating the spin pp. However, mangroves pp. Therefore, if a stick is treated before it enters these areas, essay on oil spills, the community recovers faster.

No measurable effects of dispersed or untreated oil on com- mercial fisheries and their supporting food webs have yet been found. However, such effects, if they occur, would essay on oil spills difficult to detect and measure effectively because of the mobility of most fish and many invertebrates, the essay on oil spills variability of their populations, and the effects of overfishing on stocks.

Long-term studies of the recovery of selected ecosystems ex- posed to oil are desirable, including continued studies of essay on oil spills sites where the impact of of! These laboratory results are consistent with field observations for untreated oil, but- may not appropriately represent exposures to dispersants and dispersed of! No definitive field studies, in which birds and mammals were exposed to dispersed oil, have been carried out.

Concern about the effects of dispersants on birds and marine mammals centers on a question of the extent of exposure rather than on enhanced toxicity of the oil. The possible effects of ingested oilfrom exposure of loins ant! Distance to the spill, essay on oil spills, time required to mobilize equipment, the size of the spill, and the roughness of the seas are major factors that influence the use of dispersants pp.

Oil spills of all sizes can be treated by the use of undiluted dispersant, which is usually applied by various techniques:. Major spills greater than 2, essay on oil spills, bbl encompass large areas and require rapid treatment response; the only technique that may be capable of countering these spills is to spray from helicopters or large aircraft pp.

Moderate or small spills can be countered by spraying from boats, but this technique is less efficient on spills greater than 1, bbl because of logistical limitations pp.

Dispersant droplet size produced by aerial spray systems can be controlled only within limits determined by nozzle design and the effects of air currents produced by aircraft motion. For boat systems, nozzle selection and flow rate determine droplet size pp. There is, as yet, no practical means of varying the application rate of dispersants to achieve a constant dispersant-oil ratio in treat- ing a spill pp.

Operators essay on oil spills aircraft or boats spraying dispersant need guidance to locate the oil and apply dispersant accurately. This guidance is normally provided by spotter aircraft pp. Remote-sensing methods are being developed, but they are still difficult to interpret pp. For documentation and evaluation of effectiveness, photography, including videotape, is useful but must be interpreted cautiously. Can dispersant be effectively applied to the of! Will the use of dispersants reduce environmental damage pp, essay on oil spills.

Calibration of the spraying system is essential pp. More accurate monitoring and documentation of dispersant ef- fectiveness, on spills of various sizes and under environmental conditions covered by contingency plans, are encouraged. Detailed contingency planning for the use of dispersants should include: past experience in applying dispersants and evaluating their effectiveness; hazard evaluation for sensitive species, populations, com- munities, and habitats; familiarity with available dlispersant chemicals; training and practice in decision making; and training of observers to monitor daspersant application and results.

While major oil spills are rare, oil slicks can have disastrous environmental and economic consequences, essay on oil spills. This book summarizes research on the use of chemical dispersants: their effectiveness and limitations and the results of using them in different spill situations. Based on laboratory and field research as well as on actual case histories, this book contains a clear-cut set of recommendations for action, planning, and research.

Of special interest is the chapter on the biological effects of oil itself and of oil essay on oil spills with chemical dispersants. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

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Oil Spill Essay | Bartleby

 

essay on oil spills

 

Essay about Oil Spill Response. Oil Spills And The Natural Resources Essay Words | 7 Pages. Every year there are thousands of oil spills that occur across the nation; both minor and major spillages. The oil from the spills typically arise in 3 areas: rivers, bays, and the ocean. Nearly all the accidents involving oil spills are a. Oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land. Oil Spills Essay Examples. 22 total results. An Analysis of the Oil Flowing Out of the BP Which Caused Havoc on the Environment of the Gulf. words. 2 pages. An Argument That Water Pollution Should Be Stopped. words. 2 pages. An Introduction to the Issue of Oil Spills. words. 1 page.