Is the present ethical basis for the management of high level waste in the UK flawed? Does it provide a just allocation of resources between present and future generations?
What is the ethical solution to the waste issue? Most countries have experienced difficulties in finding acceptable sites for the storage or final disposal of high level radioactive waste.
It seems highly unlikely that the UK will implement a policy of deep underground geological disposal for many years. As a result, there is an opportunity to consider whether, given the present pace of technological development, it is likely that an alternative solution could be found within the next years, which would be preferable on ethical grounds. The use of monitorable, retrievable, surface storage MRSS with a design life of, say, years would provide the necessary time for one or other of these developments.
There is, of course, the possibility that within this time frame the world order would collapse completely collapse due to some catastrophe major nuclear war or an asteroid strike , leaving a small population eking out an existence at survival level.
In that situation, the hazard presented by high level waste would appear trivial. The merit of MRSS as an interim solution is also dependent to some extent on the likelihood of the need for a large re-expansion of nuclear power within the next years, in order to meet the demand for new energy sources.
These will become essential as the finite supplies of fossil fuels become depleted, or considerations such as global warming necessitate a reduction in the rate at which they are consumed.
Thus at some future time, the re-expansion of nuclear power is likely to be necessary. This would have a five-fold effect on the management of high level waste. These factors are as follows:. At the same time, it would simplify the management of high level waste, as the half-lives of nearly all the other isotopes present in the waste would be much less than that of plutonium.
All of these factors should assist in securing public acceptance of the MRSS concept in this generation. It is visualised that, in the UK, the various activities leading to the production of plutonium and high level waste, together with their use, storage and disposal would occur in the three phases shown in Table 1. As much of the opposition to nearly every proposal for the management of high level waste purports to be based on ethical considerations, the principal need is to examine the validity of the current arguments.
Since the time of Aristotle and Plato, there have been many different schools of ethics, often with a conflict of views between contemporary schools. The present generation is no exception. There are two main schools: Looking back over three decades, it appears that the opponents of nuclear power, notably in the USA, realised that the ideas of the deontological school could be used to provide an ethical basis for their opposition.
Moreover, because of its concern for future generations and the extremely long term problems presented by high level waste, the views of the deontological school provided an ideal means for demanding extremely rigourous requirements and then demonstrating that it was unlikely that they could be met, leading to the conclusion that the use of nuclear power should cease as soon as possible.
A major weakness in the position of the deontological school, which undermines the moral high ground claimed by the opponents of nuclear power, is its failure to consider the right of the underpriveleged members of this generation compared with by inference the average members of future generations. A further weakness of the arguments of the opponents of nuclear power in this respect is the very clear precept of the deontological school that, if this generation depletes a scarce resource such as fossil fuel , it should provide a replacement for future generations.
Thus, in the absence of proof that non-nuclear renewable energy sources would be able to replace fossil fuels in a way that will be acceptable economically and environmentally, there should be no objection on ethical grounds to the continuation of the use of nuclear power, reprocessing the fuel both proven technologies and stockpiling the plutonium as a future energy source.
It should be noted that, on ethical grounds, the replacement energy sources should have as low a cost as possible consistent with other constraints, until such time as there is no scarcity of resources for improving the lot of the least priveleged members of society. In spite of these deficiencies in the ethical arguments, it seems that the purveyors of deontological ethics have been successful in persuading the general public in most countries that high level waste presents a more serious hazard than the nuclear power stations which produce it; as a corollary, in several countries, the further use of nuclear power is now uncertain.
This is possibly due to the emphasis on the longevity of the high level waste, although paradoxically, opinion polls show that in general, members of the public take little interest in possible events much more than years ahead. The deontological school of ethics, although very concerned about the welfare of future generations, has little to say about how scarce resources should be used to benefit the poorer sections of the present generation, possibly to the detriment of future ones.
The scarcity of resources for such purposes is shown by the inability of most of the developed countries to contibute the promised 0. The utilitarian school, however, would in principle seek to use scarce resources to provide an optimum distribution of benefits between the present and future generations, taking into account the current disparities in factors such as the provision of health care and opportunities for education within the present generation, on a world-wide basis.
Justice requires that future generations should not be made worse off than our own, but it does not require that they should be made better off than our own, bearing in mind that justice also requires some redistribution of resources in this generation.
The moral obligation of the developed countries to reduce the risk of malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries is equally vital. In relation to high level waste, the utilitarian ethics school would seek to reverse the tendency to overregulation, regarding this as self-defeating. In addition, it would take into account the disparity in the cost of a DUGD facility compared with an MRSS facility of equivalent capacity with a design life of, say, years a factor of at least one order of magnitude and the fact that the DUGD concept is not necessarily the optimum solution.
Get your discount right now! Trash is going to become a disaster! Top Fifteen Thesis Statements for Your Research You can use any of these sentences in your academic work or get inspired with these interesting ideas. It is up to you to decide what to choose, but we recommend you to have a look at the following thesis statements to be able to provide your readers with a great piece of writing: For this reason, sustainability of recycling is a great solution to the problem.
Despite the fact that recycling industries are aimed at reducing pollution and saving natural resources of the planet, most of factories produce alarming amounts of waste. Therefore, the problem of development new recycling technologies is critical today.
To make the recycling idea public, schools need to introduce different programs involving pupils in the process of garbage collection and sorting it out into proper containers. Participation in different waste management programs is vital for the entire humanity, as environmental problems affect every living creature on this planet.
The negative consequence of economic imperialism is the exportation of different types of waste to third world countries. Recycling companies claim to save the planet from the trash disaster. However, the workers of their factories are not safe while doing their job. If this industry is aimed at improving the environmental problem, it should first provide the stuff with necessary equipment. Cheaper technologies helping to get rid of extra waste will make it possible to boost the percentage of environmentally-friendly countries.
Training experienced and professional personnel to recycle waste at factories is the pressing issue for environmentally-friendly corporations. There is a need for exploring possible solutions to this problem to avoid biological hazards. Waste detrimentally affects the quality of the soil, so in future, it will be impossible to plant any crops.
While bringing up a child, parents should teach him or her to be environmentally-friendly. Thus, we will provide our children with better future. To involve people in the recycling process, the government should develop different reward programs for companies and ordinary citizens.
Burning waste releases various dioxins, metals, ash, and odors in the atmosphere. School of Public Health. (n.d.) Retrieved August 2, The deterioration of the environment threatens the earth’s natural resources such as clean water, fossil fuels for energy, and food supply (Mosser, %(12).
THESIS QUESTION THESIS QUESTION • How does recycling conserve land? What is waste reduction? • Waste Reduction is minimizing the amount of waste at its source in order to minimize the amount required to be treated or disposed of (Mallak, Ishak, Mohamad Kasim, & Abu Samah, )%(4).
Recycling Thesis Statement Examples Recycling is essentially a process of conversion of waste into more useful products. It forms the third spoke in the waste . Topics: waste reduction, campus & civic engagement Disciplines: humanities and arts, social sciences Use your design skills to think about how Princeton might communicate and enact its sustainability initiatives more effectively through e.g. signage, logos, iconography, and so on.
Swedish University essays about THESIS WASTE REDUCTION. Search and download thousands of Swedish university essays. Full text. Free. Sep 28, · A better thesis statement would be something of the form: "This paper will argue that recycling processes implemented over the past 30 years have led to significant positive gains in the economic efficiency of waste disposal: specifically, air and land pollution levels, energy input into the waste management process and reduced resource Status: Resolved.