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Testing for Lipids, Proteins and Carbohydrates. Investigating the Relationship of Mass to Volume. SEP staff Chemistry of Life lesson. Lesson Overview Grade level s: Lipids, proteins and carbohydrates Big ideas s: There are four classes of biological macromolecules: Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids All biological macro-molecule are made up of a small number of elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Simple tests can detect the presence of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in given samples i.
Students will be able to name the four biological macromolecules and their building blocks test food samples for the presence of lipids, proteins, and simple and complex sugars. Content background for instructor: Monosaccharides or simple sugars such as glucose and fructose C 6 H 12 O 6 function as energy source in cells during cellular respiration and are also used to build cell structures and other organic molecules within the cells.
Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together. Sucrose table sugar is a disacharide composed of one glucose and one fructose molecule. Are long chains of monosaccharides bond together. Plants store excess glucose in the form of starch, a polysaccharide composed of long chains of glucose. Starches can be found in potatoes, rice, wheat, corn, bananas, peas, beans, lentils, and other tubers, seeds and fruits of plants. Animals and humans store excess glucose in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscles.
Between meals the liver breaks down glycogen to glucose and releases it into the blood stream to supply glucose to cells in need. Other important polysaccharides are cellulose and chitin. Cellulose makes up the cell wall of plants whereas chitin provides structure to fungi and the exoskeleton of arthropods. Lipids A lot of lipids function as long-term energy storage. One gram of fat stores more than twice as much energy as one gram of carbohydrates. Lipids are also an important component of the cell membrane.
Lipids consist of glycerol and fatty acids "tails". The fatty acid "tails" are long chains of carbon and hydrogen that contribute to the non-polar behavior of fats - they don't mix with polar water.
The fatty acid chains can be saturated, with all carbons saturated with hydrogen atoms forming a straight chain without double bonds. Unsaturated fatty acids contain double bonds within the carbon chain, which results in a bend of the chain.
Proteins Proteins are complex, specialized molecules composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur. The building blocks of proteins are amino acids.
There are 20 different amino acids that combine to form polypeptides proteins. The different amino acids are similar in structure: The different amino acids have different side chain, but are otherwise identical. Proteins have many important roles in organisms. Structural proteins such as collagen or elastin, provide support. Regulatory proteins such as enzymes control cell processes. Proteins also play an important part in the immune system antibodies , oxygen transport hemoglobin , movement muscles etc.
Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are composed of building blocks called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made of a sugar molecule, a phosphate molecule and a nitrogenous base. In DNA d eoxyribose n ucleic a cid the sugar is a deoxyribose and the nitrogenous bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.
In RNA ribose n ucleic a cid the sugar is a ribose and the bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil. Nucleic acids carry the genetic information within cells. Nucleic acids won't be explored in this lesson. Testing for simple carbohydrates monosaccharides and some disaccharides Benedict's solution is used to test for simple carbohydrates.
Benedict's solution is a blue colored liquid that contains copper ions. This reaction is caused by the reducing property of simple carbohydrates. The copper II ions in the Benedict's solution are reduced to Copper I ions, which causes the color change.
Sometimes a brick red solid, copper oxide, precipitates out of the solution and collects at the bottom of the test tube. Complex carbohydrates such as starches DO NOT react positive with the Benedict's test unless they are broken down through heating or digestion try chewing crackers and then doing the test. Table sugar disaccharide is a non-reducing sugar and does also not react with the iodine or with the Benedict Reagent. Sugar needs to be decomposed into its components glucose and fructose then the glucose test would be positive but the starch test would still be negative.
Sudan Red test Sudan red is a fat-soluble dye that stains lipids red. Using Sudan red can show the amount and the location of lipids. Testing for proteins Buiret test Buiret solution is a blue liquid that changes to purple when proteins are present and to pink in the presence of short chains of polypeptides. The copper atom of the biuret solution reacts with the peptide bonds to cause the color change.
Gather all materials and set up the stations Protein station: Put food samples in containers or on plates b. Cut small squares of brown paper bag about 5"x5" b. Daly Ralston Resource Center: Food testing kit K Protein station Testing for the presence of proteins - Biuret test Show students the available foods for testing.
Ask them which ones they expect to contain protein. Demonstrate to students how to perform the test. Put a food item containing protein into a test tubes i. If it is not a liquid, add some water and mash it well. Also set up a control, a test tube containing a liquid that does not contain protein i. Add about 2ml of Biuret reagent to the test tube. Show students the positive - purple or pink - test result indicating the presence of protein. Discuss the importance of a control.
Allow students to test various food items for the presence of proteins see student handout. Ask students whether they are able to tell which food items contain more protein than others. Biuret reagent can stain your skin and fingernails!! Lipid station Intro Show students the great variety of lipids. Ask them if they can sort them into different categories. Liquid fats oils are mostly coming from plant sources.
For older students provide more detail: They contain a higher number of unsaturated fatty acids which have "bends" in the fatty acid chain due to double bonds between the carbon atoms. These bends don't allow the fatty acid chains to stack closely and result in the liquid form of these oils.
Solid fats are mostly animal derived. They contain a higher number of saturated fatty acids, that have straight fatty acids chains which stack tightly and result in the solid form of these fats. Plant oils can be turned into a solid form margarine, crisco by hydrogenating the fatty acids.
Hydrogen atoms are added to the fatty acids chain and remove the double bonds that caused the "bends". This process is called hydrogenization. Fat is a great source of storage energy. The seeds need sufficient energy to sprout and grow, before they have leaves and can produce more energy through photosynthesis.
Testing for the presence of lipids: Sudan red test Demonstrate how to perform this test and refer to student hand-out. I cut branches and manicure them. Leaving a lot of stem I then arrange them on a wicker basket lid so they do not touch each other. The lid and of course the buds are left to dry in a upstairs closet so as to maintain dark. That lasts about three days. I then de-stem them with scissors and put them in a brown paper bag. I do about 2 ounces when finished at a time in a bag.
I leave the top open though and stick it into the same closet. So roughly 5 or 6 days to dry. Curing takes a bit longer. Anjinsan , Jan 21, TichySmokeSmoke , Jan 22, Cation - its horrible advice to cut your buds fresh off the plant and put it in a paper bag. You will get mold and ruin the whole harvest.
The correct way is to hang dry the plants for a few day and then paper bag them. My buds are hydro from clones and dense sativa nugs. Xare , Jan 23, Paper bags don't work for me. It dries them out way too fast. Im curing as we speak Purplekrunchie , Jan 24, You must log in or sign up to reply here. Share This Page Tweet. Your username or email address:
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