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❶Meaning, Effects and Disposal. Climax Community in Ecology:

Not only are the resources limited but there are limits both to the rates at which the environment can receive and recycle wastes and to its capacity for storing them in a suitable form. Complexity is a third characteristic of any ecosystem. It is because of such complexity that human intervention in or the meddling with a balanced ecosystem with the objective of producing some desirable effect, also often brings forth some additional, unexpected and undesirable side effect.

In certain countries, e. The chief objective of an experimental ecologist or eco-physiologist is to understand the mass and energy turnover within different ecosystems and to estimate quantitatively the primary and secondary production. Ecology may also be defined as a system-theory oriented synthesis of both earth and life sciences, and can be studied by developing suitable and comprehensive flux-analytical and hierarchical medelling approaches.

As in most other branches of biology, the descriptive aspects of ecology were the main focus of attention during the early s but during the past few decades the trend of research has shifted to the experimental aspects. Greig-Smith has pointed out the limitations and inadequacies of these methods for estimating spatial patterns. The data obtained by laying quadrats depend on the quadrat size used.

Transect methods are rather inefficient and give reliable information only for the small area actually sampled. Plotless techniques give useful information only for the nearest-neighbours, and measurements of distances to second, third, or more remote neighbours consume much time in the field. In view of the above limitations of the extant methods, Rohlf and Archie proposed a new method for the mapping of the relative locations of sessile objects e.

Only a small subset of the possible inter point distances needs to be measured to obtain an accurate map. This method differs from conventional mapping in that the latter use a compass or transit to locate each individual by triangulation. The chief limitation of the new method is that one must physically reach each plant so as to measure the inter point distances. What is badly needed is the development of common patterns or rules that can explain the increasing complexity and variability observed in more general terms.

Such rules have already become available for physics and some other branches of science. One currently popular view is that the competition for energy may be the most important factor in ecological interactions. However, this view is not shared by White who gives several examples from the animal kingdom that suggest a different pattern, viz. According to White, nitrogen limitation plays a fundamental role in the ecology of all organisms. It is dependent on other communities for its existence.

Structure of a community can be studied by determining the density, frequency and abundance of species. Usually a community has one or more species which occur in large number. Such species are called dominants and the community is often named after them.

The community consists of different groups of plants and animals of different species, may be large and small, may belong to one life from or another but are essentially growing in a uniform environment. This includes study of various life processes respiration, growth, reproduction etc. The recurrence of these important life processes at regular intervals in a year and their manifestation in nature is termed periodicity. Natural forest communities possess a number of layers or storeys or strata related to the height of plants, for example, tall trees, smaller trees, shrubs and herbaceous layers form the different strata.

This phenomenon in a plant community is called stratification. These are marginal zones and are easily recognisable. Usually, in ecotones, the variety of one species is larger than in any of the adjacent communities. A phenomenon of increased variety and intensity of plants at the common junction is called edge-effect and is essentially due to wider range of suitable environmental conditions. Different species of animals and plants fulfil different functions in the ecological complex.

The role of each is spoken of as its ecological niche i. We can also say that ecological niche is a small habitat within a habitat in which only a single species can survive. Communities are not static but progressively change with time in a definite manner. This change of the plant and animal communities in an orderly sequence in an area is called ecological or biotic succession.

Ecological succession finally leads to a stable nature community called climax community. The net production of biomass and storage of energy by a community per unit time and area is called community productivity.

A biotic community has the ability to quickly regain equilibrium after a disturbance in population fluctuation. This is called biotic stability and is directly proportional to the number of interacting species it contains i. Before man encroached upon it, the world biosphere was a large climax community resulting from thousands of years of evolution. With increase in population, the demand for space has been steadily increasing and so the ecosystem have been rapidly exploited beyond the capacity of the environment to adjust, thereby totally disrupting the balance of nature.

Before a point of no return is reached, man should stop manipulating the environment to his advantage.

Concern for environment protection was shown in the conference on Human environment held at Stockholm in June, The prime objective of the conference was to focus attention on the major environmental issues, to recognise and identify the causes for environmental degradation and the need to prevent and control it. The conference called upon all the nations of the world to protect, improve, preserve and enhance the environment for the present and future generations.

The patterns of behaviour organisms is regulated by natural selection even though it is detrimental for species. Ecology is a complex subject with huge variation in almost every scale. For any observation there is often an immediate and delayed causes. These hierarchies need to be explained properly. It can further be segmented as ecology of individuals autecology or groups synecology.

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Read this essay to learn about Ecology! The term “Ecology” was coined by Earnst Haeckel in It is derived from the Greek words Oikos- home + logos- study. Ecology deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. The surroundings or environment.

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Maryland's Ecology and Environment - Maryland is the 42nd largest state, making it one of the smaller states in America. It is located in the South Atlantic region on the United States eastern seaboard.

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Essay # 1. Introduction to Ecology. Every organism invariably depends upon the environment and other organism for its existence. It either eats other organisms or is eaten by others and competes with other for the necessities of life such as food, shelter and mate survival requires group association. Ecology is the study of interrelationship between living organisms and their environment. Life and environment are interdependent. The plant and animal life is effected by various environmental Related Articles: Short Essay for School Students on Our Ecosystem.

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Essays Related to Ecology essay. 1. ".ecology enters religion as a central concept in two major ways. In a movement for the preservation of nature, that is, religious ecological preservation, and as a perspective and a method in the study of religion, or ecology of religion" In Christianity, the concept of a transcendent God has been used /5(10). Comprehensive Essay on “Ecology” Article shared by. Ecology is one of the most popular areas of biology. Even the layman and the general public are greatly interested in this subject in view of the prob­lems of environmental pollution, human survival and conservation of natu­ral resources.