In order to be listed as an author, a person must have an intellectual stake in the writing — at the very least they must be able to explain and even defend the article.
Someone who has only provided technical assistance, as valuable as that may be, may be acknowledged at the end of the article, but would not be listed as an author. If there is more than one author, one author must be identified as the corresponding author — the person whom people should contact if they have questions or comments about the study. Provide key words under which the article will be listed. These are the words which would be used when searching for the article using a search engine such as Medline.
When practical, we should choose key words from a standard list of keywords, such as MeSH Medical subject headings. A copy of MeSH is available in most libraries. A narrative abstract consists of a short version of the whole paper. There are no headings within the narrative abstract. The author simply tries to summarize the paper into a story which flows logically. A structured abstract uses subheadings.
Structured abstracts are becoming more popular for basic scientific and clinical studies, since they standardize the abstract and ensure that certain information is included. This is very useful for readers who search for articles on the internet.
Often the abstract is displayed by a search engine, and on the basis of the abstract the reader will decide whether or not to download the full article which may require payment of a fee.
With a structured abstract, the reader is more likely to be given the information which they need to decide whether to go on to the full article, and so this style is encouraged. The JCCA recommends the use of structured abstracts for case studies. Since they are summaries, both narrative and structured abstracts are easier to write once we have finished the rest of the article.
We include a template for a structured abstract and encourage authors to make use of it. Our sub-headings will be: This consists of one or two sentences to describe the context of the case and summarize the entire article.
Several sentences describe the history and results of any examinations performed. The working diagnosis and management of the case are described. Synthesize the foregoing subsections and explain both correlations and apparent inconsistencies. If appropriate to the case, within one or two sentences describe the lessons to be learned.
At the beginning of these guidelines we suggested that we need to have a clear idea of what is particularly interesting about the case we want to describe. The introduction is where we convey this to the reader. It is useful to begin by placing the study in a historical or social context. If similar cases have been reported previously, we describe them briefly.
If there is something especially challenging about the diagnosis or management of the condition that we are describing, now is our chance to bring that out. Each time we refer to a previous study, we cite the reference usually at the end of the sentence. This is the part of the paper in which we introduce the raw data.
First, we describe the complaint that brought the patient to us. Next, we introduce the important information that we obtained from our history-taking. Also, we should try to present patient information in a narrative form — full sentences which efficiently summarize the results of our questioning. We may or may not choose to include this list at the end of this section of the case presentation. The next step is to describe the results of our clinical examination.
Again, we should write in an efficient narrative style, restricting ourselves to the relevant information. It is not necessary to include every detail in our clinical notes. If we are using a named orthopedic or neurological test, it is best to both name and describe the test since some people may know the test by a different name.
X-rays or other images are only helpful if they are clear enough to be easily reproduced and if they are accompanied by a legend. Be sure that any information that might identify a patient is removed before the image is submitted.
At this point, or at the beginning of the next section, we will want to present our working diagnosis or clinical impression of the patient. In this section, we should clearly describe the plan for care, as well as the care which was actually provided, and the outcome. It is useful for the reader to know how long the patient was under care and how many times they were treated.
Additionally, we should be as specific as possible in describing the treatment that we used. If we used spinal manipulation, it is best to name the technique, if a common name exists, and also to describe the manipulation. Remember that our case study may be read by people who are not familiar with spinal manipulation, and, even within chiropractic circles, nomenclature for technique is not well standardized.
However, whenever possible we should try to use a well-validated method of measuring their improvement. For case studies, it may be possible to use data from visual analogue scales VAS for pain, or a journal of medication usage. It is useful to include in this section an indication of how and why treatment finished. Did we decide to terminate care, and if so, why? Did the patient withdraw from care or did we refer them to another practitioner? In this section we may want to identify any questions that the case raises.
It is not our duty to provide a complete physiological explanation for everything that we observed. This is usually impossible. If there is a well established item of physiology or pathology which illuminates the case, we certainly include it, but remember that we are writing what is primarily a clinical chronicle, not a basic scientific paper. Finally, we summarize the lessons learned from this case.
If someone provided assistance with the preparation of the case study, we thank them briefly. It is neither necessary nor conventional to thank the patient although we appreciate what they have taught us. It would generally be regarded as excessive and inappropriate to thank others, such as teachers or colleagues who did not directly participate in preparation of the paper.
References should be listed as described elsewhere in the instructions to authors. Only use references that you have read and understood, and actually used to support the case study. Do not use more than approximately 15 references without some clear justification. Try to avoid using textbooks as references, since it is assumed that most readers would already have this information. Also, do not refer to personal communication, since readers have no way of checking this information.
A popular search engine for English-language references is Medline: If we used any tables, figures or photographs, they should be accompanied by a succinct explanation. A good rule for graphs is that they should contain sufficient information to be generally decipherable without reference to a legend. If any tables, figures or photographs, or substantial quotations, have been borrowed from other publications, we must include a letter of permission from the publisher.
Also, if we use any photographs which might identify a patient, we will need their written permission. Name, academic degrees and affiliation. This 25 year old female office worker presented for the treatment of recurrent headaches. Describe the essential nature of the complaint, including location, intensity and associated symptoms: Her headaches are primarily in the suboccipital region, bilaterally but worse on the right.
Sometimes there is radiation towards the right temple. She describes the pain as having an intensity of up to 5 out of ten, accompanied by a feeling of tension in the back of the head. When the pain is particularly bad, she feels that her vision is blurred. Further development of history including details of time and circumstances of onset, and the evolution of the complaint: This problem began to develop three years ago when she commenced work as a data entry clerk.
Her headaches have increased in frequency in the past year, now occurring three to four days per week. Describe relieving and aggravating factors, including responses to other treatment: Such assignments show how complexities may influence various decisions and that is what makes case studies so important. In most of the cases, your professor will give the same topic to a whole class and it will become a sort of a discussion, after processing all available data.
That is why you need to use all of your thinking skills and knowledge to get a chance to analyze the situation properly. Here are some recommendations, which will be helpful in completing a case study:. There are also a few problems you need to avoid to make your case study as interesting and catchy, as possible:.
There are multiple ways of making the process of completing the assignment easier, including ordering a task at a writing service or asking other students for help. However, most of the students decide to download a case study template and try to complete the assignment on their own, using an example.
It can be a great option for those, who easily process information and can analyze the template structure to apply it in their own works. Such samples can be of a great help, as they contain a proper formatting style, content and other important elements, which distinguish a first-class paper. With the help of a sample case study you will be able to complete the assignment quicker and with less efforts. You have already learned what a case study is and how it should look like, so it is time to learn more about the structure of assignment and its content.
However, every research greatly differs depending on the topic, so you should carefully note down all the guidelines your professor provides not to miss anything.
When you complete such assignment, you should never forget about case study format, as it can greatly influence the result. Your professor may ask you to use a certain formatting style, which will be much easier for you and will help to avoid the most common mistakes. The first challenge when writing a case study comes with choosing the best case study topics.
Guidelines for Writing a Case Study Analysis. A case study analysis requires you to investigate a business problem, examine the alternative solutions, and propose the most effective solution using supporting evidence.
A case study should be a fairly modest description of what actually happened. Speculation about underlying mechanisms of the disease process or treatment should be restrained. Field practitioners and students are seldom well-prepared to discuss physiology or pathology.
How to Write a Business Case Study 1. Determine the case study's objective and format. All business case studies are designed to demonstrate the value of your services, but they can focus on several different client objectives and take a few different forms. Our case study writing service aims to help scholars in completing tasks in Law, Business, Marketing, Nursing and more. Our Secret of Successful Case Study Writing A case study is an interesting but quite challenging type of academic assignments.
A case study is a task, which aims to teach the student how to analyze the causes and consequences of an event or activity by creating its role model. Such assignments show how complexities may influence various decisions and that is what makes case . A case study paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or among more than two subjects.